Moses erected 12 stone pillars at Mt Sinai to represent the 12 tribes of Israel

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Exodus 24:4-6

Moses then wrote down everything the Lord had said.  He got up early the next morning and built an altar at the foot of the mountain and set up twelve stone pillars representing the twelve tribes of Israel.  Then he sent young Israelite men, and they offered burnt offerings and sacrificed young bulls as fellowship offerings to the Lord.  Moses took half of the blood and put it in bowls, and the other half he splashed against the altar.

Egyptian History and the Bible Reconciled


The Israelites
Joseph (Imhotep) invitesJacob to come to Egypt.
Jacob and his sons move to Egypt and settle in the land of Ra.
Netjerikhet / Djoser (3rd dynasty)
Vizier: Imhotep = Joseph
The Israelites Multiply in Egypt
The Hebrews multiply and become numerous. Joseph / Imhotep protects them for 70 years.
3rd Dynasty 4th dynasty 5th dynasty 6th dynasty
(dynasties 7-11 are contemporary with other dynasties)
Moses raised by Sobeknefru in Pharaoh’s household until 40 years old during the reign of Amenemhet III.Moses co-reigns with Amenemhet III for 9 years as Amenemhet IV during this time
Amenemhet I Sesostris I Sesostrist II
Amenemhet IISesostris III Amenemhet III
 (12th dynasty)
Moses (Amenemhet IV) flees to Midian where he lives with Jethro for 40 years
Amenemhet III Sobekneferu (12th dynasty)
Sobekhotep I to Neferhotep I (13th dynasty)
Moses becomes the leader of the Jews and Aaron their spokesman
Neferhotep I (13th dynasty)
Moses leads the Israelites in the Wilderness for 40 years. During this time, Moses receives the Law on Mt Sinai, sets up the Sanctuary and positions the Israelites to take the Promised Land
Sobekhotep IV (13th dynasty)
14th dynasty
Canaan – Judges
Moses dies on Mt Nebo in Moab just before the Israelites invade Canaan (The Promised Land)Israel is ruled by ‘Judges’
Hyksos (15th dynasty)
(16th and 17th dynasties contemporary
with the 15th)
Israel United – Kingship
Saul David Solomon
Ahmose I Amenhotep I Thutmose I
Thutmose II Hatshetsup (18th dynasty)

Neferhotep was the Pharaoh of the Exodus

Neferhotep I

One of the last Pharaohs of the 13th Dynasty. He reigned for 11 years according to the Turin King List; longer than any other Pharaoh of that dynasty. There were a number of other Pharaohs in this Dynasty but they only reigned for very short periods. Neferhotep I was succeeded by his brother Sobekhotep IV rather than his son Haankhef[1] (Wahneferhotep).[2]He was probably the ‘Pharaoh of the Exodus’. The Pharaoh that refused to ‘let the Israelites go’. Moses (at the age of 80 years) and Aaron (aged 83 years) would have contronted Neferhotep in 1446BC which is when the Exodus occurred.  Neferhotep I‘s mummy has never been found because he drowned in the Red Sea when pursuing the Israelites who were leaving Egypt (the Exodus). The semitic slave villages of Kahun and Tel ed-Daba were occupied up until the time of  Neferhotep IScarabs of the 12th and 13th dynasty pharaohs from Sesostris II up until Neferhotep I were found by Flinders Petrie at Kahun indicating that it was  Neferhotep I who was reigning when the Exodus occurred.[3]  These towns were suddenly evacuated near the end of the 13th dynasty. As the Exodus took place in 1446BC, the Dates of his reign are likely to be: 1457-1446BC (see Revised Chronology)  Following Neferhotep I‘s death at the time of the Exodus, the Hyksos (Amalekites) were able to invade Egypt with very little resistance.

The Thirteenth Dynasty – Egypt’s Demise

Neferhotep I

Egypt’s wealth and power reached a peak during the reigns of Sesostris III and Amenemhet III of the 12th dynastySesostris III and Amenemhet III had a coregency lasting about 20 years. It was during their co-regency that Moses was born to the Hebrew slave Jochebed (1526BC). Moses was born at a time when Amenemhet III was trying to kill the Hebrew babies to stop the Hebrews from outnumbering the Egyptians. Amenemhet III had no sons of his own and so he allowed his daughter Sobekneferu to adopt a little baby that she found left in basket among the bullrushes of the NileMoses was raised in Pharaoh’s household and would have become the next Pharaoh except he showed his allegiance to the Hebrews by killing an Egyptian taskmaster.  Moses (Amenemhet IV) had to flee to Midian where he remained in exile for 40 years. During this time, Amenemhet III died and his daughter Sobekneferu had to assume the throne. She only reigned for 4 yrs and then she died, so ending the 12th dynasty. The 13th dynasty is tradionally thought to have begun withSobekhetep I. It is often described as a time of chaos and disorder with a rather quick succession of pharaohs. Itj-tawy near the Faiyum was the center of government for most of the dynasty. Many of the Pharaohs were know only from an odd fragmentary inscription or from scarabs. Little is known about the chronology of this period as there were few monuments or stelas.  Neferhotep Iwas one of the longest ruling pharaohs of that dynasty, reigning for 11 years according to the Turin King List.  Neferhotep was the pharaoh who was ruling when Moses (Amenemhet IV) returned from exile in Midian, age 80 years, in 1446BC, to team up with his brother Aaron to deliver God’s message. There are numerous inscriptions in the Aswan region mentioning Neferhotep I’s name, as well as the names of family members and officials serving under this king.   It is from these inscriptions that we know the name of his wife (Senebsen) and his son Haankhef and his daughter Kemi.

Amenemhet IV (Moses) in Exile

Moses (Amenemhet IV) was in exile in Midian for the last few years of Amenemhet III‘s reign and during the reign ofSobekneferuExodus 2:23-25

Moses remained in exile for much of the 13th dynasty until the reign of Neferhotep I.

Flinders Petrie found a semetic workers village at Kahun which is situated close to Dashur and Hawara where many of the 12th dynasty mud brick pyramids are situated. Kahun was constructed during the time of Sesostris II to house the workers who built the pyramids at Dashur and Hawara. Scarabs found in the village indicate that it was occupied up until the time of Neferhotep I. As so many tools and manuscripts were left behind, Petrie concluded that the village must have been evacuated fairly quickly.

The Hebrew slaves who lived in Kahun were given the task of making mudbricks containing straw for the Pharaohs of the 12th dynasty. The mudbricks were used to construct the cores of the 12th dynasty pyramids. There were at least seven pyramids constructed during the 12th dynasty which spanned about 200 years. The Labyrinth at Hawara, constructed under Amenemhet III, also contained millions of mudbricks. The Labyrinth contained over a thousand rooms and was considered one of the wonders of the ancient world. A large slave labour force was needed to support the building exploits of the 12th dynasty pharaohs.

The Israelites had grown to number around 2 million. Even if the Israelites only produced one mud brick per day per person, there were more than enough Hebrew slaves in Egypt to meet the building needs of the 12th dynasty pharaohs. The Egyptions were worried that the Israelites may rebel and join their enemies. The pharaohs of the 12th dynasty oppressed the Hebrews, forcing them to be slaves.

When Amenemhet III was co-reigning with his father Sesostris III, he tried to have the male babies of the Hebrew slaves killed. Moses was born during this time and was found and adopted by the princess Sobekneferu. She raised him as her own which means he would have been an heir to the throne because Amenemhet IIIhad no other male heirs and a women had never taken the throne before. It appears that Moses, as Amenemhet IV, helped Amenemhet III reign for about 9 years before having to go into exile. Sobekneferu did eventualy succeed Amenemhet III but only because Moses / Amenemhet IV had to flee to Midian after revealing his loyalty to the HebrewsMoses / Amenemhet IV was 40 years old when he fled to MidianAmenemhet IV had a coregency with Amenemhet III of 9 years according to the Turin King List but he never reigned by himself. Moses / Amenemhet IV remained in Midian for 40 years when had an encounter with God on Mt Sinai (the burning bush) and was told to return to Egypt and lead the Israelites out of Egypt to the Promised Land of Canaan. (Exodus 3:1-22 ) He also met his wifeZipporrah in MidianZipporrah was the daughter of the High Prist of Midian Jethro with whom Moses / Amenemhet IV stayed.

Amenemhet IV (Moses) Returns to Egypt

After Moses (Amenemhet IV) had been in Midian for 40 years, the LORD (Yehovah) appeared to Moses on Mt Sinai. Moses was told to go back to Egypt and tell the new Pharaoh to let the Israelites go.Exodus 3:1-22

The Israelites had been in Egypt 430 years. It was time for them to return to Canaan and take possession of it. Yehovah had promised to give Canaan to the Israelites after they had served as slaves in a foreign land for 400 years (4 generations).Genesis 15:12-16 Acts 7:6

The pharaohs of the 12th dynasty had forgotten what Joseph (Imhotep) had done for Egypt. The Israelites, who had come to number around 2 million posed a threat to the Egyptians and so the 12th dynasty pharaohs oppressed the Israelites and forced them to make mudbricks and work the fields. The 12th dynasty ended with the death of Sobekneferu; the princess that found Moses and raised him as her own.

The 13th dynasty pharaohs did not undertake massive construction projects like their 12th dynasty predecessors but they continued to oppress the Israelites.Yehovah saw their suffering and remembered his promise to AbrahamExodus 6:1-12

Yehovah appeared to Aaron (the brother of Moses) and sent him to fetch Moses and be his spokesman. Moses returned to Egypt and appeared before the Elders of Israel. He told them what God had said and Moses (Amenemhet IV) performed the signs that were given to him. The Israelites believed and accepted Moses andAaron as their leader and spokesman.Exodus 4:18-31

The Exodus of the Israelites

Moses and Aaron went before the Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) and presented the message that God had given them. Moses was 80 yrs old when he was sent to Pharaoh (Neferhotep I).Exodus 7:7 The Pharaoh’s heart was hard and so God had to inflict 10 plagues upon Egypt before the Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) would finally agree to let the Israelites go.

Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) and perform Miraculous Signs and delivered God’s Message : “Let My People Go into the Desert to Worship Me“.Exodus 7:1-13 Ten Plagues were inflicted upon Egypt because Pharaoh Neferhotep I would not soften his heart and let the Israelites go: Blood – Exodus 7:14-25 Frogs – Exodus 8:1-15 Gnats – Exodus 8:15-19 Flies – Exodus 8:20-32 Livestock – Exodus 9:1-7 Boils – Exodus 9:8-12 Hail – Exodus 9:13-33 Locusts – Exodus 10:1-20 Darkness – Exodus 10:21-29 Egypt’s Firtsborn – Exodus 11:1-10 Amazingly, none of these plagues affected the Israelites who were living in the country. The last plague in which all of Egypt’s firstborn died is commemorated by the Jews today: The Passover. Exodus 12:1-30

The loss of Egypt’s first born (Including Neferhotep I‘s son Haankhef) was the ‘final straw’. After this Pharaoh Neferhotep I summoned Moses and Aaron and told the the Israelites to GO (and take their flocks and herds). The Egyptians even gave the Israelites considerable amounts of gold and sliver and clothes. Exodus 12:31-50

The Israelites assembled at Succoth. That night, the Israelites set off, taking with them unleavened bread as well as their flocks and herds and the gold and silver that the Egyptians had given them. Exodus 12:33-39 The Israelites had over 600000 men of fighting age. Exodus 12:37 The Israelites had been in Egypt for 430 years.Exodus 12:40

Flinders Petrie found evidence to suggest that the town of Kahun was suddenly vacated. He also found the scarabs of various pharaohs including those of Sesostris II (the earliest) and Neferhotep I (the latest). The the most recent (latest) scarabs would indicate which pharaoh was ruling when the town was vacated, particularly if the pharaoh had been ruling for a while. The most recent scarabs found at Kahun were those of NeferhotepNeferhotep also has the necessary credentials to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus in that he was reigning at the right time, his body (mummy) was never found and he had a son but his son did not succeed him. Neferehotep Iwas succeeded by his brother Sobekhotep IV who would not have normally been next in line to the throne but for the fact that Neferhotep’s firstborn son Haankhefwas killed in the last of the ten plagues that befell Egypt.

The Red Sea Crossing

The Israelites assembled at Succoth and headed towards Etham and the Red Sea thus avoiding Philistine territory.Exodus 13:17-22 Moses took Joseph‘s (Imhotep‘s) bones with him.Exodus 13:19 The Israelites were guided by a pillar of fire by night and pillar of cloud by day.Exodus 13:21-22 The Israelites camped at Etham on the edge of the desert.Exodus 13:20 Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) changed his mind and pursued the Israelites with his army and all of Egypt’s chariots.Exodus 14:1-31 The Israelites were able to miraculously cross the Red Sea on dry ground but Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) and his army were drowned when they tried to follow.Exodus 14:21-31 The mummy of Neferhotep has never been found.

The 14th Dynasty – Egypt Crippled

The Hyksos Invasion – The 15th Dynasty – The Second Intermediate Period

Egypt was crippled by the ten plagues and the Exodus. Egypt, not only lost it’s leader, it’s army and it’s transportation, it lost it’s slave labor force. Egypt was no longer able to undertake massive construction projects (eg the great pyramids and the Labyrinth). Egypt fell in to turmoil and became vulnerable to invasion by it’s neighbors. As the Israelites were leaving Egypt, they crossed paths with a tribe of nomadic herdsman called the Hyksos / Amalekites (‘Shepherd Kings’) originating in Arabia. They had a battle at Rephidim in which the Israelities prevailed. Some time later, the Hyksos arrived in Egypt and set up a fort at Avaris. Meanwhile, the Israelites arrived at Mt Sinai in Arabia, where they camped for 40 years before proceeding to the Promised Land of Canaan. The Hyksos (Amalekites) established a base at Avaris from which they gradually subdued the rest of the country. They eventually took control of Lower Egypt (the 15th dynasty) where they demanded homage from the Kings of the south (the 17th dynasty in Upper Egypt). Eventually, Kahmose of the 17th dynasty in the south (Upper Egypt) lead an uprising that forced the Hyksos (Amalekites) to leave Egypt.

Egypts New Kingdom – The 18th Dynasty

About 400 years after the Exodus the Hyksos (Amalekites) were eventually driven out of Egypt by Kahmose only to bump into King Saul of Israel who almost completely wiped them out. Ahmose I, the brother of Kahmose became the first Pharaoh of Egypt’s New Kingdom which Manetho called the 18th dynasty.

Biblical References

Exodus 1:1-22 The Israelites were oppressed after the death of Joseph (Imhotep)

Exodus 2:1-10 Moses birth and adoption by pharaoh’s daughter

Exodus 2:11-25 Moses (Amenemhet IV) has to flee to Midian

Exodus 2:23-25 The Pharaoh (Amenemhet III) dies while Moses is in exile

Exodus 3:1-22 Moses and the Burning Bush

Exodus 4:1-17 Signs for Moses

Exodus 4:18-31 Moses (Amenemhet IV) returns to Egypt

Exodus 5:1-23 Moses and Aaron go to Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) but he does not obey

Exodus 6:1-12 God remembers his Promise to Abraham

Exodus 6:13-30 Genealogy of Moses

Exodus 7:6 Moses was 80 yrs old when he was sent to Pharaoh (Neferhotep I)

Exodus 7:1-13 Moses and Aaron sent to Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) to perform Miraculous Signs and deliver God’s Message : “Let My People Go into the Desert to Worship Me

Ten Plagues inflicted upon Egypt because Pharaoh would not soften his heart and let the Israelites go:

Blood – Exodus 7:14-25 Frogs – Exodus 8:1-15 Gnats – Exodus 8:15-19 Flies – Exodus 8:20-32 Livestock – Exodus 9:1-7 Boils – Exodus 9:8-12 Hail –Exodus 9:13-33 Locusts – Exodus 10:1-20 Darkness – Exodus 10:21-29 Egypt’s Firtsborn – Exodus 11:1-10

Exodus 12:1-30 The Passover

Exodus 12:31-50 The Exodus

Exodus 12:33-39 The Israelites took unleavened bread and large droves of livestock with them. The Egyptians also gave them considerable amounts of silver and gold and clothings.

Exodus 12:37 The Israelites assembled at Succoth

Exodus 12:37 The Israelites had over 600000 men of fighting age

Exodus 12:40 The Israelites had been in Egypt for 430 years

Exodus 13:17-22 The Israelites assembled at Succoth and headed towards Etham and the Red Sea thus avoiding Philistine territory

Exodus 13:19 Moses took Joseph’s (Imhotep’s) bones with him

Exodus 13:21-22 The Israelites were guided by a pillar of fire by night and pillar of cloud by day

Exodus 13:20 The Israelites camped at Etham on the edge of the desert

Exodus 14:1-31 Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) changes his mind and pursues the Israelites with his army and all of Egypt’s chariots

Exodus 14:21-31 The Israelites were able to miraculously cross the Red Sea on dry ground but Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) and his army were drowned when they tried to follow

Exodus 15:22-27 After crossing the Red Sea, the Israelites bypassed Marah where the waters were bitter and camped at Elim where there were 12 springs and 70 palms


[The Exodus of Israel Terry Hurlbut]

[The Pharaoh of the Exodus]

[Searching for Moses David Down]


[The Exodus ]

[Pyramids of Ancient Egypt Answers in Genesis David Down]

[The Mysterious Hyksos Answers in Genesis John Ashton & David Down]

[The Pharaoh of the Exodus]

[Q&A Creation Ken Ham]

[Egyptian history and the Biblical record. ? A perfect match. Daniel Anderson]

[Scarab of Neferhotep I]

Evidence for the Israelites (JEWS) in Ancient Egypt

[Egypt suffered massive losses 40 years later under Neferhotep]

[The True Mt Sinai]

Moses and Amenemhet IV


  1.  Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, 231
  2.  Ken Ham Q&A Creation Ken Ham
  3.  The Exodus of Israel Terry Hurlbut The Exodus of Israel Terry Hurlbut

Moses followed a pillar of cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night.

Could the Pillars of Cloud and Fire that went before the Israelites have been a volcanic eruption?

Could God have used this to lead the Israelites to Sinai?

Examples of Volcanic eruptions during the day and during the night.

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The real Mt Sinai (Jabel el Lawz) in Arabia is in a volcanic area.

Could there have been volcanos erupting during the Exodus?

Exodus Ch 13

7When Pharaoh let the people go, God did not lead them on the road through the Philistine country, though that was shorter. For God said, “If they face war, they might change their minds and return to Egypt.” 18So God led the people around by the desert road toward the Red Sea.a The Israelites went up out of Egypt armed for battle.

19Moses took the bones of Joseph with him because Joseph had made the sons of Israel swear an oath. He had said, “God will surely come to your aid, and then you must carry my bones up with you from this place.”b

20After leaving Succoth they camped at Etham on the edge of the desert. 21By day the Lord went ahead of them in a pillar of cloud to guide them on their way and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, so that they could travel by day or night. 22Neither the pillar of cloud by day nor the pillar of fire by night left its place in front of the people.

Deuteronomy Chapter 4

 11You came near and stood at the foot of the mountain while it blazed with fire to the very  heavens, with black clouds and deep darkness. 12Then the Lord spoke to you out of the fire. You heard the sound of words but saw no form; there was only a voice. 13He declared to you his covenant, the Ten Commandments, which he commanded you to follow and then wrote them on two stone tablets.

The birth and identity of Moses in the 12th dynasty

Moses was born in the 12th dynasty of Egypt. The Israelites were forced to make mud bricks by the pharaohs of this dynasty. Pyramids of the 12th dynasty had an inner core made of mudbricks. There is evidence of a mass exodus of foreign slaves in the 12th dynasty at Kahun. Amenemhet III, the son of Sesostris III is most likely the Pharaoh who ordered that the Hebrew children be killed at birth by the midwives. Sobeknefru, his daughter or sister adopted Moses after finding him amongst the reeds of the Nile in a basket. Moses would have become the next Pharaoh (Amenemhet IV) and seems to have co-reigned with Amenemhet III for 9 years before he had to flee to Midian after killing an Egptian. Sobekneferu became the Pharaoh when Amenemhet died. Sobeknefru reigned almost 4 yrs before she died and so ended the 12th dynasty. A number of pharaohs followed in quick succession until Neferhotep in the 13th dynasty. Neferhotep was the Pharaoh who Moses confronted when he returned to Egypt 40 yrs after fleeing to Midian. Moses then lead the Israelites (numbering around 2 million) out of Egypt, thru the Red Sea into Arabia where they received the Law at Mt Sinai (Jabel Laws).